Archive for Profiles

Visiting Artists

The first visitor to the Edward Johnson Building in 1962 was composer and education Carl Orff, who taught the first International Conference on Elementary Music Education and introduced Orff Schulwerk to over 160 participants.

Since then, the Faculty of Music has hosted hundreds of visiting artists and lecturers throughout the academic year, enriching musical thought for students, faculty members, and the public.

Here are some profiles of just a few of those visitors: Hindustani vocalist Pandit Jasraj, Czech composer Karel Husa, jazz composer Maria Schneider, and avant-garde composer György Ligeti.

Pandit Jasraj

Pandit Jasraj performing in Convocation Hall; April 18, 1999; Faculty of Music Archives

An internationally revered guru, Hindustani vocalist Pandit Jasraj (1930) first performed on stage at the University of Toronto in Walter Hall on April 9th, 1995. This concert and subsequent live CD, (which can be found in our Music Library,) marked the establishment of a scholarship fund in his name for students studying Indian Classical Music. His second visit to the University of Toronto in 1999 was highlighted by a full-house concert at Convocation Hall, where he was the recipient of the Faculty of Music’s Distinguished Visitor Award. He was the first distinguished visitor of Indian Classical Music in the University’s history.

Jasraj is a vocalist with a range of three and a half octaves and is the foremost voice of the Mewati gharana tradition of Hindustani classical music. Although the Mewati gharana is a devotional musical practice, Jasraj’s reach extends beyond the sacred into semi-classical and popular fields. He has been featured on over 100 recordings since 1950, and has toured internationally to great acclaim.

Pandit Jasraj performing in Convocation Hall; April 18, 1999; Faculty of Music Archives

An honored pedagogue of his craft, Jasraj’s musical legacy revolves around the continued development of North Indian music at home and abroad. He has founded schools dedicated to the Mewati gharana, following its traditional pedagogical principles, in Toronto, Vancouver and New York, among others. For his contributions to Indian music and culture, Jasraj was honoured with the Padma Vibhushan, the second-highest civilian award of the Republic of India.

“If there is one advice I would like to give it is practice, perfection and purity of notes that one has to be constantly be working upon. Music learning is an ongoing class. Nobody passes out. Every musician is a student forever.”

Jasraj in conversation with Shashank Subramanyam, 2006

Karel Husa

Karel Husa (1921-2016) was one of the preeminent Czech composers of the 20th Century. A student of Boulanger and Honegger, Husa was a composer of great regard, notably winning the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1969 for his String Quartet No. 3 and the Grawemeyer Award in 1993 for his Cello Concerto. Husa, like many of his contemporaries from the Eastern Bloc, left the communist and increasingly oppressive Czechoslovakia after his studies abroad. He then immigrated to the United States where he accepted positions at Cornell University and Ithaca College.

In addition to his orchestral acclaim, Husa is perhaps best known for his contributions to the Wind Ensemble repertoire. His Music for Prague 1968, written as a response to the brutal Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia has become a standard of the symphonic wind repertoire. Music for Prague has been programmed over 10,000 times since its composition, including three times at the Faculty of Music: February 15, 1976 (Dir. Stephen Chenette); April 1, 2006 (Dir. Darryl Eaton); and February 4, 2012 (Dir. Alain Cazes).

“I think that Music for Prague is popular because it offers a wonderful balance between technical challenge and artistic reward. It is a difficult piece to put together, and sometimes the musical language is a bit abstract, especially for players encountering Husa for the first time. But when it all comes together, the emotional impact of the piece for both players and audience is tremendous. I think the importance of its subject matter is also important – people have something they can hang on to as they listen. Husa used an old Hussite song as source material – a song of resistance that would have been known to all Czechs in the time Music for Prague was written. I think Music for Prague really opened up new possibilities for composers seeking to create new sounds – the attention of this important composers shone the spotlight on the potential of the wind band as an artistic medium.”

Dr. Gillian MacKay, Professor & Director of the Wind Ensemble

Husa visited the University of Toronto, Faculty of Music in November 1986 to conduct the Contemporary Music Ensemble (Dir. Robin Engelman) performance of his chamber work, Serenade (1963). Unfortunately, no recording of this performance is available at this time – although we would love to hear from you if you were there!

Maria Schneider

Maria Schneider (1960) is one of America’s foremost jazz musicians of our time. A genre-bending bandleader, pianist and composer, Schneider has notably won five GRAMMYs in both jazz and classical categories. Still active, Schneider continues to record, perform and teach around the world. A graduate of the University of Minnesota and the Eastman School, Schneider was awarded a NEA Apprenticeship Grant in 1985 to study with famed trombonist and bandleader Bob Brookmeyer, and an honorary doctorate from the University of Minnesota in 2012.

In addition to her artistic practice, Schneider is a prominent advocate for the rights of musicians in the digital age. She is an outspoken critic of YouTube, Spotify and other streaming services which, through legal loopholes and unethical practices, fail to both properly compensate creators for their work and protect their intellectual property. She has testified to this effect before the United States Congress, participated in round-table discussions with the United States Copyright Office, and appeared on television and numerous publications. She was a founding member of the artist advocacy organization musicanswers as well as the crowd-funded ArtistShare platform.

Schneider was the first (primarily) jazz composer to be named the Roger D. Moore Distinguished Visitor in Composition at the University of Toronto Faculty of Music in 2008-2009. On April 4th 2009, she conducted the U of T Jazz Orchestras in a concert of her music.

U of T 10 O’Clock Jazz Orchestra with Shannon Graham on saxophone, conducted by Maria Schneider, 2009.
U of T 10 O’Clock Jazz Orchestra with Shannon Graham on saxophone, conducted by Maria Schneider, 2009.

“Maria Schneider’s residency was a highlight of my time at U of T. Many of the students in the program, including myself, were very interested in jazz composition as well as performance and it was inspirational to learn from one of the most prominent composers in jazz today. It was wonderful to experience her unique style of conducting while playing in the big band. It was also important for me to see a woman occupy that role, as female leadership can unfortunately be a rarity in academic jazz programs.”

Shannon Graham (BMusPerf 11)

György Ligeti

One of the most influential and innovative composers of the 20th Century, Ligeti needs little introduction. A composer of Hungarian origin, he fled the Soviet regime and settled in Vienna in the late 1950s. This new period in his life marked a shift towards the avant-garde, away from the dodecaphonic style he formerly composed in. His avant-garde work is wide-ranging; earlier works from this period involved his trademark micropolyphony, widely popularized by its inclusion in the soundtrack of 2001: A Space Odyssey. Later, his compositional focus shifted away from sonorous explorations to those of rhythm. His three books of Études for piano are among the most popular of his compositions from this later period, and are widely considered as some of the finest piano writing of the late 20th Century.

Ligeti – Études pour piano, Book III, Étude 16

Ligeti visited the University of Toronto, Faculty of Music in 1973 for the CAPAC-MacMillan Lecture in MacMillan Theatre. Ligeti joined distinguished company, as other lecturers included Glenn Gould, Zoltan Kodaly, Ravi Shankar, Luciano Berio and Maureen Forrester. These lectures were held annually from 1963-1977 as part of the summer school curriculum and were originally facilitated by MacMillan. Ligeti’s 1973 lecture was the first after MacMillan’s death in May of that year.

This 1973 lecture addresses a variety of topics related to his compositional practice. Although primarily about his interest in electronic music, he discusses his unique notational style, harmonic language, micropolyphony, and even holograms.

Please enjoy this fascinating snippet of his lecture in MacMillan Theatre, courtesy of the University of Toronto, Faculty of Music Library, where he explains his desire to create poetry through electronic sounds.  If interested in the full lecture or the others above, please inquire in our Music Library directly.

by James Conquer

The University of Toronto Symphony Orchestra

by Professor Robin Elliott

Two types of orchestra have flourished at the University of Toronto, fulfilling two different functions. There have been recreational orchestras, whose primary aim is to give the participants an enjoyable outlet for their musical talents. These groups are populated with players from the wider university community and concentrate on the most popular standard repertoire works; their main goal is the enjoyment of sociable music making rather than professional training. On the other hand, orchestras made up solely or mostly of university music students aim for the highest performance standards, offer valuable training to aspiring young musicians, and in addition to the standard repertoire often perform quite demanding works, including contemporary repertoire and new music.

One characteristic feature of student orchestras is the high turnover rate. The graduating class leaves the orchestra each year, resulting in the departure of about one quarter of the players each season. This is one reason that a university ensemble can never quite reach the standards of a top quality professional orchestra, in which musicians typically play together for many years, with a much lower turnover rate. But it also gives a freshness to the student orchestra that more polished groups may lack; many of the young musicians are performing difficult but rewarding orchestral repertoire for the very first time, with all of the excitement and enthusiasm that brings.


The University of Toronto has been home to many recreational and training orchestras over the years, both preceding and following the creation of the Faculty of Music in 1918. The earliest orchestra loosely associated with the University of Toronto was the Toronto Orchestral School, which began rehearsals in 1891 under the aegis of the Toronto College of Music. The College had been founded in 1888 by F.H. Torrington (1837-1917); two years later it became the first music school affiliated with the University of Toronto. Torrington was born in England and arrived in Toronto in 1873. He was an organist and violinist, and also conducted a series of local choirs and orchestras, contributing greatly to the development of the city’s concert life. The Toronto Orchestral School rehearsed on Monday evenings during the academic term under Torrington’s direction, and gave at least one public concert each year. In June 1894 it performed during one of the five concerts celebrating the opening of Massey Hall. At its height it was a 100-piece orchestra, with a few teachers added to the ranks to help out the students. No record of its activities beyond 1900 has been found.

In 1896 a rival institution, the Toronto Conservatory of Music, became the second music school to be affiliated with the University of Toronto. In 1906 the Conservatory hired Frank Welsman (1873-1952) to organize an orchestra. He was a Toronto-born pianist and conductor who had studied music locally and at the Leipzig Conservatory. On April 11, 1907 his 50-piece Conservatory Symphony Orchestra debuted at Massey Hall. The orchestra consisted of students, teachers, and community members, including professional musicians brought in to assist the less experienced players. After two years of improving standards, the orchestra dropped its official association with the Conservatory and was renamed the Toronto Symphony Orchestra (TSO). The Welsman TSO flourished for ten years or so but fell victim to the First World War. It ceased operations in 1918, the same year that the University of Toronto created the Faculty of Music.

The Weinzweig UTSO

John Weinzweig conducting the UTSO at Convocation Hall, March 1, 1937. Image courtesy of

When the composer John Weinzweig (1913–2006) was an undergraduate music student at the Faculty of Music, he ran an ad in the student newspaper The Varsity in 1934 soliciting players for an orchestra. This led to the creation of the first University of Toronto Symphony Orchestra, which gave its debut concert on March 9, 1935, featuring Schubert’s “Unfinished” Symphony and other works. Despite sharing the same name, however, Weinzweig’s orchestra was not really a direct predecessor of the current UTSO.

Weinzweig’s UTSO was run by the university’s Student Administrative Council rather than the Faculty of Music, and was more of a community orchestra than a professional training orchestra. Weinzweig’s connection with the UTSO ceased when he left Toronto for graduate studies at the Eastman School of Music in 1937. But the UTSO which he had founded continued on until the 1960s. It was conducted over the years by, among others, Victor Feldbrill (1943; more about him later), John Reymes-King (1944; he later founded the music program at the University of Alberta and received the first PhD in music from the University of Toronto in 1950), Hans Gruber (1945–48; later conductor of the Victoria SO), Harold Neal (1949; later conductor of the Brantford SO); Lee Hepner (1949–50; later founding conductor of the Edmonton SO); Elmer Iseler (1950; later a renowned choral conductor); Keith Girard (1952; later a flute player in the TSO); Robert Rosevear (mid-1950s; the orchestra often appeared with the University of Toronto Chorus under Richard Johnston during these years), Milton Barnes (1963; he had been a composition pupil of Weinzweig); Albert-Josef Schardl (1963–64), and Tibor Polgar (1965–66). Gruber was a student when he conducted the UTSO, and Girard was a recent graduate, while both Rosevear and Johnston were faculty members. Schardl (1930–2018) was a US violinist, conductor, and composer of Austrian parentage. A self-proclaimed “genius,” he claimed to be fluent in seven languages, and was working for Berlitz in Toronto at the time.

In the recent University of Toronto promotional video there is a brief image at 44 seconds (blink and you will miss it) of an orchestra – shown in the still image above. This is the University of Toronto Symphony Orchestra, with conductor Keith Girard (MusBac 1951), in March 1952. The source of this image is the U of T Archives Image Bank, available online here.

The first UTSO premiered new works by Canadian composers on occasion, including Talivaldis Kenins, Alfred Kunz, Richard Johnston, and Charles Wilson. Student musicians often appeared as soloists with the orchestra, e.g. the pianist George Crum (who became the first music director of the National Ballet of Canada) played the opening movement of the Schumann Piano Concerto and some solo works on February 20, 1946. This UTSO ceased operations shortly before the Faculty of Music took over the UTSO name for its student orchestra in January 1969.

Hart House Orchestras

The Hart House Orchestra, founded in 1976, is similar to the Weinzweig UTSO in that it has no official affiliation with the Faculty of Music, and its 80 to 90 musicians are chosen by audition from the broader U of T community. The orchestra typically performs three concerts in Hart House each season, and one concert on tour. To celebrate its fortieth anniversary season and the Sesquicentennial of Confederation, the orchestra performed in Carnegie Hall in February 2017. An earlier Hart House Orchestra performed from 1954 to 1971 under the conductor Boyd Neel. It was a professional chamber orchestra of varying size and quality which made a number of recordings and toured widely.

The Conservatory Symphony Orchestra

Meanwhile, back in 1919, the university had taken control of the Toronto Conservatory of Music (which became the Royal Conservatory of Music in 1947). Instead of a loose affiliation, which had been the arrangement since 1896, this merger resulted in the University of Toronto assuming the Conservatory’s assets and overseeing its operations, while continuing to support the Faculty of Music as well. This union between the Conservatory and the University of Toronto was not always a happy one, but it lasted for 72 years. In 1924 a new student orchestra started up at the Conservatory under Luigi von Kunits, a Viennese-born conductor, composer, and violinist who had become the conductor of the revived TSO in 1922. Also in 1924, a junior orchestra class was started up at the Conservatory under the violist Milton Blackstone, to prepare younger students for the more advanced orchestra. The baton for the senior student orchestra passed on from Kunits to the violinist Donald Heins in 1930, and then to Ettore Mazzoleni in 1934.

Mazzoleni led the Royal Conservatory Orchestra for over 30 years. He was born in Switzerland in 1905, moved to England as a boy, and was educated at Oxford and the Royal College of Music. He immigrated to Toronto in 1929 to teach at Upper Canada College, joined the Conservatory teaching staff in 1932, and married Ernest MacMillan’s sister Winnifred in 1933. His vision for the Conservatory orchestra was that it should not only provide music students with professional training and an introduction to the great works of the symphonic literature, but also allow Conservatory composition students and other young composers a chance to hear their orchestral scores in live performance. And so in addition to the standard repertoire, Mazzoleni introduced a great deal of new Canadian music by composers such as Brian Cherney, Harry Freedman, Richard Johnston, Paul McIntyre, Oskar Morawetz, Clermont Pépin, and Harry Somers.

Boyd Neel also conducted the Conservatory’s student orchestra on occasion starting in 1956. Neel had arrived in Toronto from England in 1953 to become the Dean of the Royal Conservatory of Music (and, as noted above, he started up the Hart House Orchestra in 1954). Mazzoleni and Neel, together with Sir Ernest MacMillan, shared the orchestral conducting duties for the week-long festival in March 1964 that marked the official opening of the Edward Johnson Building (EJB). The 815-seat MacMillan Theatre in the EJB became the fine new venue for the concerts of the student orchestra. After Mazzoleni’s death in a traffic accident in 1968, the Czech conductor Karel Ančerl led the Conservatory orchestra for the first term of the 1968–69 season during his brief stint as an artist-in-residence at the Faculty of Music. Ančerl had just recently immigrated to Toronto following the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. He led the last performance of the Royal Conservatory Symphony Orchestra on December 6, 1968. In 1969 he assumed duties as the conductor of the TSO, a position which he held until his death in 1973.

UTSO: The Feldbrill Era

Victor Feldbrill conducting UTSO rehearsal
Victor Feldbrill conducting UTSO rehearsal, early 1970s.

The renamed University of Toronto Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert under its new conductor, Victor Feldbrill, on January 17, 1969. The program included works by Weber, Weinzweig, and Mahler in the first half and Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony after intermission. The UTSO and Feldbrill then toured to Montreal and Ottawa with this program. The orchestra now consisted entirely of students at the Faculty of Music; gone were the days of teachers and community members filling out the ranks at concert time. Feldbrill had conducted the earlier UTSO on February 25, 1943 as an 18-year-old secondary school student. He went on to study music at the U of T, graduating with an Artist’s Diploma in 1949. More recently, he had just finished a ten-year stint as the principal conductor of the Winnipeg Symphony. He had lots of experience working with young musicians, having conducted the National Youth Orchestra of Canada on numerous occasions during the 1960s. He was named the conductor-in-residence at the U of T in 1972, and was also founding conductor of the Toronto Symphony Youth Orchestra from 1974 to 1978. The UTSO gave three concerts per season under Feldbrill and played for two Faculty of Music opera productions each year, including demanding works such as Humphrey Searle’s Hamlet in February 1969 (the North American premiere, with the composer present), Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress in December 1971, Verdi’s Falstaff in January 1973, and Janáček’s Káťa Kabanová in March 1977.

This logo was introduced when the Royal Conservatory Orchestra was renamed the University of Toronto Symphony Orchestra in January 1969 and for years it appeared on the cover of the concert programs.

I played in the first violin section of the UTSO for the 1979–80 season when I began my graduate studies in musicology at the U of T. The concerts under Feldbrill were all memorable experiences for me. The first featured the superb Passacaglia and Fugue by Harry Somers, Ravel’s Piano Concerto in G with Stella Ng as soloist, and Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. We also did Mahler’s First Symphony that season, Richard Strauss’s Till Eulenspiegel, and the Marimba Concertino by Paul Creston with soloist Beverley Johnston (who is now, like me, a faculty member at U of T). Two composers appeared as guest conductors of their music that season, and how contrasted they were! The Toronto musician Ben McPeek led the orchestra on December 1, 1979 in a performance of selections of his music, including his “Commercial” Overture, based on jingles he had written for radio and television ads, such as his unforgettable signature tune for TD Bank (“To-RON-to Do-MIN-ion”). McPeek was known as the “Jingles King” and wrote over 2,000 catchy tunes during his short career until his untimely death from cancer in 1981 at the age of 46. By way of complete contrast, the Quebec composer, conductor and new music advocate Serge Garant appeared for a performance of his challenging work Phrases II (1968) on 12 April 1980, in which the orchestral musicians speak (phrases from the writings of Che Guevara) as well as play. Garant and Feldbrill co-conducted the work, in which the orchestra is split into two sub-orchestras side by side on stage.

Among the many highlights of Feldbrill’s years with the UTSO were the world premiere of R. Murray Schafer’s epic work Divan i Shams i Tabriz for seven singers, orchestra, electronic organ, and four-channel tape sounds on April 8, 1972; a performance of Weinzweig’s Dummiyah on March 10, 1973 to celebrate the composer’s 60th birthday (repeated on March 18 for a concert in Ottawa at the National Arts Centre); Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony – always a significant event in the life of an orchestra – on March 9, 1975; and Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring – a demanding work for a student orchestra –on March 6, 1976. Outstanding student soloists who performed under Feldbrill included the cellist Janet Horvath in Tchaikovsky’s Roccoco Variations (March 10, 1973) and the violist Steven Dann playing the Walton Viola Concerto (October 25, 1975).

This opening page of Schafer’s score for Divan i Shams i Tabriz is a visual representation of the tape sounds; it was included as an insert in the program for the UTSO world premiere of the work in 1972.

To mark the end of Feldbrill’s 14-year term as the UTSO resident conductor, he led a performance of Mahler’s Symphony No. 2 on April 3, 1982 – the day before his 58th birthday. The program noted that 166 students who had played under Feldbrill’s direction in the UTSO went on to join professional orchestras in Canada, the USA, and Europe. It also listed all of the repertoire the UTSO had performed under his direction: 122 different works by 59 composers, with four world premieres and four Canadian premieres. Feldbrill returned to the UTSO several times over the years as a guest conductor, e.g. a concert in 1999 to mark the 50th anniversary of his graduation from the U of T and, most recently, a concert on April 6, 2013 (two days after his 89th birthday) featuring Weinzweig’s Symphonic Ode to mark the centennial of the composer’s birth (Feldbrill had programmed this work in his first concert with the UTSO in 1969), with Tchaikovsky’s Serenade for Strings and Dvořák’s Symphony No. 8. The 2013 concert also marked the 70th anniversary of Feldbrill’s conducting debut with the earlier UTSO in 1943.

The UTSO under Tabachnik, Hétu, and Bennett

After Feldbrill’s departure, the UTSO played under a series of guest conductors for three seasons, including Mario Bernardi, Kazuhiro Koizumi, and Otto-Werner Mueller. Canadian works programmed included the Suite for Harp and Chamber Orchestra by Harry Somers with harpist Laura Stephenson on January 21, 1984, and the Concerto for Five Percussionists and Orchestra by Talivaldis Kenins on March 31, 1984. The Kenins work was a premiere to mark his retirement from the Faculty of Music; the soloists were five student performers from the studio of Russell Hartenberger.

The Swiss conductor Michel Tabachnik became the UTSO’s regular conductor in 1985 and held the position until 1991. He was no stranger to Toronto, as he had conducted a number of Canadian Opera Company productions earlier in the 1980s. In addition to the standard repertoire (with a notable emphasis on French music), Tabachnik programmed contemporary works by Messiaen, Varèse, and Xenakis, as well as Canadian compositions by Clermont Pépin (Symphony No. 3 “Quasars”) and U of T composers Lothar Klein (Design for percussion and orchestra) and Oskar Morawetz (Passacaglia on a Bach Chorale). Performances by the UTSO under Tabachnik were recorded for later broadcast on radio station CJRT. Tabachnik’s final concert with the UTSO was given in January 1991. The Quebec conductor Pierre Hétu stepped in as a guest conductor for the last UTSO concert of that season, after which he was chosen to be the resident conductor of the UTSO. Incidentally, Tabachnik later gained notoriety when his links to the doomsday cult Order of the Solar Temple were the subject of a sensational court trial in France in 2001, but he was acquitted by the court and resumed his prominent international conducting career.

Hétu was born and educated in Montreal and had also studied conducting under Louis Fourestier at the Paris Conservatoire. He was the artistic director of the Edmonton SO from 1973 to 1980, and had guest conducted across Canada and in Europe. For the final concert of his first complete season with the UTSO (on April 10, 1992), Hétu programmed Weinzweig’s Symphonic Ode and Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony, both of which had featured in the very first concert given by the orchestra under Feldbrill in 1969. Other Canadian works heard during Hétu’s brief term as resident conductor included Lothar Klein’s Festival Partita and Chan Ka Nin’s Ecstasy. Hétu was not able to appear to conduct a scheduled program of works by Beethoven, Liszt, and Kodály on January 21, 1994 due to ill health, and stepped down from his position at U of T. He had to drastically curtail his conducting appearances from that point until his death from cancer in 1998. Dwight Bennett, a U of T alumnus who had studied conducting with both Ančerl and Feldbrill, stepped in to take Hétu’s place for the last two concerts of the 1993–94 season, and then was named resident conductor.

The high quality of string playing in the UTSO during the 1980s and 1990s is evidenced by the following list of student soloists with the orchestra. These musicians all went on to have significant careers in string performance, as can be seen by following the links for each name:

Work performed

Carol Lynn Fujino
Tchaikovsky Violin Concerto
March 30, 1985
O-W Mueller

Krista Buckland
Bruch Violin Concerto, Op. 26
October 17, 1987
M. Tabachnik

Barry Shiffman
Tchaikovsky Violin Concerto
April 9, 1988
M. Tabachnik

Mary Ann Fujino
Walton Violin Concerto
April 1, 1989
M. Tabachnik

Jeremy Findlay
Dvořák Cello Concerto
November 30, 1990
R. Bradshaw

Jeremy Bell
Brahms Violin Concerto
April 10, 1992
P. Hétu

Erika Raum
Bartók Violin Concerto No. 2
October 17, 1992
P. Hétu

Mark Fewer
Barber Violin Concerto
April 3, 1993
P. Hétu

Bennett’s ambitious first complete season with the UTSO included performances of Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique,Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, and Schafer’s iconoclastic Son of Heldenleben. His second season opened with the premiere of Danseries: Three Orchestral Dances by Lothar Klein and concluded on March 30, 1996 with a demanding program that featured Schoenberg’s Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31 and Mahler’s Fifth Symphony, both works new to the UTSO. Continuing this trend, his third season concluded on April 5, 1997 with an even more demanding program: Varèse’s Ionisation, Ravel’s Bolero, and Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring. Having brought the orchestra to that summit of the orchestral repertoire, Bennett stepped down from his role with the UTSO to take up concurrent positions in Tel Aviv and Kyiv.

The UTSO under Armenian, Briskin, and Mayer

The next two seasons (1997–98 and 1998–99) again featured a series of guest conductors, including Feldbrill, Peter Oundjian (at the beginning of his conducting career, following his retirement from the Tokyo String Quartet), Daniel Swift, and two men who would later become resident conductors of the UTSO, Raffi Armenian and Uri Mayer. Works performed during those two seasons included Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique, Brahms’s Symphony No. 1, Schumann’s Symphony No. 4, and Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 5. Student soloists included the violinist Elissa Lee in Bartók’s Violin Concerto No. 2 (October 25, 1997), cellist Rachel Mercer in Bloch’s Schelomo (February 7, 1998), soprano Measha Brueggergosman in Berlioz’s Les nuits d’été (January 23, 1999), and violinist Shane Kim in Chausson’s Poème (November 28, 1998). Doreen Rao, the director of choral activities at the U of T, led the UTSO and the university choirs in the premiere performance of faculty member Walter Buczynski’s A Ballad of Peace on April 4, 1998 (Buczynski retired the next year).

Raffi Armenian in MacMillan Theatre, early 2000s
Raffi Armenian in MacMillan Theatre, early 2000s

Raffi Armenian was chosen to be the new resident conductor of the UTSO starting with the 1999–2000 season. He brought a wealth of experience with both professional and student orchestras to the position. He had served from 1971 to 1993 as the conductor of the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony, and he conducted the student orchestra at the Conservatoire de Montréal from 1981 to 2013, holding the UTSO position concurrently with that role. He also had directed the orchestra and taught conducting at the Hochschüle für Musik in Graz from 1997 to 1999. With residences in Vienna, Montreal, and Toronto, Armenian and his wife, the conductor Agnes Grossmann, enjoyed busy, cosmopolitan lives. Armenian conducted the UTSO from 1999 to 2008, stepping down to become the director of the Conservatoire in Montreal, a position he held until 2011. He continued to teach conducting and lead the orchestra at the Conservatoire in Montreal until his retirement in 2013.

Armenian brought the UTSO and l’Orchestre symphonique du Conservatoire de Montréal together on three occasions for memorable concerts in MacMillan Theatre. On March 6, 2002 the combined student orchestras performed Mahler’s Sixth Symphony; on February 4, 2006 they played Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring and Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 10; and on December 8, 2007 they performed Berg’s Three Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 6, Ravel’s brilliant orchestration of his “Alborada del gracioso” from Miroirs, and Strauss’s Ein Heldenleben. With the exception of the Stravinsky, these works were all new to the UTSO. Armenian passed the baton to his wife on three occasions: Grossmann led the UTSO in performances of Bruckner’s Symphony No. 4 on 7 April 2001, Dvořák’s Symphony No. 9 on October 13, 2001 and Mahler’s Symphony No. 1 on March 30, 2007.

The repertoire under Armenian’s direction ranged from Bach to Schafer. There was plenty of Wagner, with orchestral excerpts from Lohengrin, the Ring, and Parsifal, as well as the Wesendonck Lieder and the ever popular overture to Die Meistersinger. In addition to Mahler’s Symphony No. 6 with the Conservatoire orchestra, he also led the UTSO in a performance of Mahler’s Symphony No. 3 on April 8, 2000. Those two performances marked the completion of the UTSO’s traversal of the first six symphonies by Mahler. Armenian featured faculty members as soloists on occasion, e.g. Lorand Fenyves in Bartók’s Violin Concerto No. 2 (October 14, 2000) and Scott St. John and Shauna Rolston in the Double Concerto by Brahms (December 8, 2004). Student soloists included Amanda Goodburn in the Brahms Violin Concerto (April 7, 2004), Min-Jeong Koh in Prokofiev’s Violin Concerto No. 1 (April 9, 2005) and Joël Cormier in Robert Kurka’s Marimba Concerto (December 9, 2005). The amount of Canadian repertoire performed by the UTSO diminished during Armenian’s term, but there was one notable premiere. The five-man percussion ensemble Nexus, artists-in-residence of the Faculty of Music at the time, gave the first performance of Schafer’s Shadowman, which was commissioned for Nexus and the UTSO by Michael Koerner. Writing of the premiere in The Globe and Mail (February 5, 2001, p. R3), Ken Winters noted that the dramatic and theatrical work was “enormously diverting” and “a natural [work] for a superior university orchestra and a visiting virtuoso percussion ensemble”. The performance was recorded by the CBC and later broadcast on the CBC Radio Two show Two New Hours.

The growth of the graduate program in conducting at the University of Toronto under Armenian led to frequent appearances with the UTSO by student conductors, a practice that continued and indeed increased under his successors, David Briskin and Uri Mayer. This even led to the creation of a new orchestra, when two of Mayer’s graduate conducting students, Chad Heltzel and Lorenzo Guggenheim, created the Campus Philharmonic Orchestra, which gave is first concert on December 6, 2018. This orchestra, which is for non-music majors and other members of the campus community, is in a sense the successor to the original Weinzweig UTSO, which had been founded over 80 years earlier. Curiously enough, the first concerts of both Weinzweig’s UTSO and the Campus Philharmonic Orchestra featured Schubert’s “Unfinished” Symphony, as if to affirm the link between the two ensembles.

Conductor David Briskin, 2009.

The US musician David Briskin was appointed as the director of orchestral studies and conductor of the UTSO in July 2008. Briskin had been living in New York City for 23 years before moving to Toronto in 2006 to become the music director and principal conductor of the National Ballet of Canada. He maintained his position with the National Ballet and also kept up a busy schedule of international appearances, while adding the UTSO position to his duties. Due to prior commitments he was only able to lead the first two of the four UTSO concerts in his first season; Alain Trudel and Ivars Taurins led the final two concerts that year.

In his second season, Briskin combined his two orchestras, the UTSO and the National Ballet Orchestra, for a performance on March 28, 2010 that included Symphonie fantastique by Berlioz, a perennial favorite with UTSO conductors. A highlight of the third season was the performance of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony on February 5, 2011 to welcome Don McLean as the new Dean of the Faculty of Music. U of T composers Chan Ka Nin, Alexander Rapoport, and Norbert Palej also wrote celebratory fanfares for the occasion.

In Briskin’s fourth season, Jamie Kruspe appeared as the soloist in Beethoven’s Violin Concerto, and the next season his sister Emily Kruspe was soloist in the Sibelius Violin Concerto (their father is the recently retired U of T faculty member John Kruspe). Other major works performed under Briskin included Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra, Borodin’s Symphony No. 2, Mahler’s Symphony No. 1, and the Mussorgsky/Ravel Pictures at an Exhibition. The UTSO also became a regular participant in the U of T’s New Music Festival, held each January. On January 25, 2014, for instance, the visiting British composer Gabriel Prokofiev’s Concerto for Turntables and Orchestra and his Spheres for violin and orchestra were played in between music from the ballets Cinderella and Romeo and Juliet by his grandfather, Sergei Prokofiev. Also in 2014, the UTSO appeared in concert with the University of Toronto Jazz Orchestra under its director Gordon Foote. In the first half, the UTSO played jazz-inspired works by Bernstein, Milhaud, and Gershwin, with the UTJO appearing in the second half.

In Briskin’s seventh and final season with the UTSO, he appeared in just two concerts, conducting Tchaikovsky’s Fifth Symphony and Stravinsky’s Petrouchka. The other two concerts that season were conducted by the acting director of orchestral studies that year, Uri Mayer. Mayer brought to the position a lengthy professional career as a violist and conductor. He had led the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra from 1981 to 1994 (as successor to Pierre Hétu), and had taught at the University of Michigan, Rice University, McGill University, and the Glenn Gould School. He had made many international appearances as a guest conductor and also had appeared with the UTSO in that capacity in the past. After a year as acting director, Mayer became the director of orchestral studies and conductor of the UTSO beginning with the 2015–16 season.

Even more than Briskin and Armenian, Mayer has given student conductors abundant opportunities to conduct the UTSO. The UTSO concert on November 21, 2015 was entirely led by three student conductors, and most concerts since then have included at least one appearance by a student conductor. Mayer’s thoughtful programming has included works new to the UTSO, such as Lutoslawski’s Concerto for Orchestra (December 5, 2015), Zemlinsky’s Sinfonietta (December 8, 2017), Harry Freedman’s Suite from the ballet Oiseaux exotiques (April 7, 2018), and Tchaikovsky’s First Symphony (December 7, 2018), as well as longtime UTSO favorites such as the Symphonie fantastique, Stravinsky’s Firebird, and Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony. Mayer has also programmed music by U of T faculty composers, such as Norbert Palej’s Symphony No. 1 “Gulag” (December 10, 2016) and Christos Hatzis’s The Isle is Full of Noises (October 5, 2017, on a program with Debussy’s La mer, which inspired Hatzis’s work).

The UTSO has many wonderful performances in its past, and has fostered the career of hundreds of orchestral musicians and a good many chamber musicians and soloists as well. Looking ahead, Mayer plans to conclude the current season with a performance of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring on April 6, 2019 – marking the fourth time that the orchestra will have tackled this challenging work. Celebrating its fiftieth anniversary in January 2019, the UTSO continues to provide invaluable professional training for young instrumentalists and richly enjoyable concerts for the supportive audience members who turn out to hear the orchestra each season. Long may it continue to do so.

NB: Past UTSO performances are being digitized and put online by the University of Toronto Music Library as part of its Faculty Events Database.

Thanks to librarians Karen Wiseman and James Mason for their assistance with the research for this article, and to John Beckwith for his helpful comments on it.

Edward Johnson and the University of Toronto

As many people have observed, the University of Toronto’s music building is named after the opera man and its opera theatre is named after the music man (referring in turn to the Edward Johnson Building and to its opera hall, MacMillan Theatre). Ernest MacMillan had conducted opera in the 1920s for the Toronto Conservatory Opera Company, but as the longtime conductor of the Toronto Symphony and the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, he was more closely involved with concert music than opera. He enjoyed a long association with the University of Toronto, first as a student, and later as a professor and the Dean of the Faculty of Music. The naming of the opera theatre in his honour was a well-deserved recognition of his important contributions to music at the University of Toronto. But who was Edward Johnson, the “opera man,” and what was his connection to the University of Toronto?

Edward Patrick Johnson – Eddie to his friends and family – was born in Guelph, Ontario in 1878. On the strength of his early successes as a church and oratorio soloist, he moved to New York City in 1899 to study singing seriously. He soon found lots of work as a tenor and had many prestigious church, concert, oratorio, and operetta appearances, but recognition in opera eluded him. So he travelled to Paris for further vocal training, working with Beatriz d’Arneiro, a Portuguese pianist and vocal coach. Their close working association soon led to a romantic relationship, and they married in 1909. Still more training followed in Florence, Italy, where the couple’s first and only child, a daughter, was born in 1910; she was christened Fiorenza in honour of the city of her birth.

On January 10, 1912, Johnson made his operatic debut in the title role of Giordano’s verismo opera Andrea Chénier in Padua. (Of the 40 or so recordings he made later, four are of tenor arias from this opera.) For the next seven years, he enjoyed great success in the verismo operatic repertoire in Italy and abroad, performing under the stage name Edoardo Di Giovanni (the Italian translation of his name). Signal moments included his debut at La Scala opera house in Milan in the title role of the first Italian staged performance of Wagner’s Parsifal in 1914, and singing the lead tenor roles in the Italian premiere of Puccini’s Il trittico in Rome in the presence of the composer in 1919. The Italian sojourn came to an unhappy end when his wife Beatriz died in 1919; heartbroken, Johnson elected to start a new career back in the United States.

Edward Johnson- Romeo at Metropolitan Opera 1923

Edward Johnson- Romeo at Metropolitan Opera 1923

For three seasons, Johnson sang with the Chicago Opera and then, in 1922, he made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. For thirteen seasons, he sang leading roles at the Met, including Pelléas in the first Met production of Debussy’s Pelléas et Mélisande in 1925 (with the Canadian conductor Wilfrid Pelletier in the pit). In addition to many performances of 60 different operatic roles, he also had a busy recital career that took him across North America and as far abroad as Japan, Korea, and China. Robertson Davies has left a fine account of a recital that Johnson gave in 1927, at the height of his career, in Kingston, Ontario. “There was something princely about him,” Davies remarked. “And for all of us Edward Johnson was a splendid figure, because, to crown his other great qualities, he was one of us, and princes were in short supply in Canada in those days. Indeed, they have never been so numerous that we have grown tired of them.” [One Half of Robertson Davies, Penguin Books 1978, p. 26-27]

A new chapter in Johnson’s life began in May 1935, when he unexpectedly became the General Manager of the Metropolitan Opera upon the sudden death of Herbert Witherspoon, who had been in the job for less than two months. Johnson would serve for 15 years, setting up the Metropolitan Opera Guild and steering the company successfully through the Second World War. He also increased the number of North American singers in the company, and introduced the Metropolitan Auditions of the Air.

Meanwhile, Johnson’s ties to Canada remained strong. In 1936, his daughter Fiorenza married the Ontario lawyer and politician George Drew, who was the premier of Ontario from 1943 to 1948 and then, switching to federal politics, was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1948 to 1956. Being the father-in-law of such a prominent politician only strengthened Johnson’s voice in Canadian affairs. In 1945 Johnson was appointed to the Board of Governors of the University of Toronto, and that same year he was named the chairman of the Board of Governors of the Toronto (from 1947 on the Royal) Conservatory of Music.

The postwar era saw some complicated manoeuvring regarding the role of music at the University of Toronto. There was huge growth in student numbers, but also difficult negotiations between the university administration and the university’s two music institutions, the Faculty of Music and the Conservatory. Several strong personalities were involved, each with his (they were all men) distinct vision of how music education at the University of Toronto should unfold. Initially Johnson had little direct input into these matters, as he was still busy running the Met until 1950. Soon after his retirement from the Met, music matters at the university came to head.

In January 1952, Sidney Smith, the president of the university, introduced a new plan for music at U of T, drafted by a committee led by Claude Bissell (who would succeed Smith as the president of the university in 1958). Under the umbrella designation “Royal Conservatory of Music,” there would be a Faculty of Music (offering degree courses) with Arnold Walter as the Director, and a School of Music (giving pre-university instruction for the most part) with Ettore Mazzoleni as the Principal. There was to be a rector or dean with overall authority for both parts of the Royal Conservatory, but no one had yet been appointed to the position.

The confusion began with the naming of the constituent elements. The School of Music was actually the Conservatory, and people continued to refer to it as such. The Faculty of Music was technically “the Faculty of Music of the Royal Conservatory of Music of the University of Toronto,” but scarcely anyone used this unwieldy name for it; it was just the U of T Faculty of Music. MacMillan was offered the position of rector/dean, but felt that he was too busy with his conducting duties to take up this post, so he retired from the university, feeling unhappy with the way that the entire reorganization plan was unfolding. Mazzoleni, who was his brother-in-law, also tendered his resignation. Turf wars ensued, tempers flared, backroom intrigue flourished, and the whole imbroglio made front-page head headlines in the local papers. “MacMillan Retires, Mazzoleni Resigns as Discord Rocks Royal Conservatory: Dispute Appointments in New U of T Setup,” read the page one headline in the Globe and Mail on April 28, 1952.

Edward Johnson Drew family picture December 1958 in Guelph

Edward Johnson Drew family picture December 1958 in Guelph. Left to right: Sandra Drew, Edward Johnson, George Drew, Edward Drew, and Fiorenza Drew.

As a member of the governing boards of both the U of T and the Conservatory, Johnson was tasked with smoothing things over. He agreed to act as the interim rector/dean of the Royal Conservatory until the post could be filled. Upon learning of this, Mazzoleni rescinded his resignation (to MacMillan’s surprise and disappointment). Arnold Walter’s title was Director of the Faculty of Music, but his portrait hangs in the EJB along with the other Deans of the Faculty. Johnson served without pay as the interim Dean during the 1952-53 academic year; his portrait does not hang with the other Deans, though a fine portrait of him by Eugene Speicher hangs in one of the two main entrances to MacMillan Theatre (a portrait of MacMillan by Kenneth Forbes hangs in the other entrance). Boyd Neel was appointed as the Dean of the Royal Conservatory in 1953, to oversee both divisions, and occupied the position until 1970. Johnson was initially not keen on relinquishing his influence or cooperating with Neel. President Smith finally had to tell Johnson to stop interfering with the running of the Conservatory, at which point Johnson stepped aside, though he did remain on the Board of Governors.

Johnson spent his remaining years divided between Guelph and Toronto, with regular trips to Ottawa to visit his daughter and son-in-law, and to Europe, especially his beloved Italy. He was involved in preliminary plans for a new building for the Faculty of Music – the building that now bears his name. He did not live to see the building, though; he died of a heart attack while attending a performance by the National Ballet of Canada in Guelph on April 20, 1959. Two years later, on the anniversary of his death, his daughter Fiorenza (Mrs. George Drew) laid the cornerstone for the building that bears her father’s name. “This building is in spirit the true receptacle of his heart,” she remarked on that occasion, “and so it will always remain.”

Edward Johnson Building Stone

Edward Johnson Building Stone at 80 Queen’s Park



Professor Robin Elliott
Jean A. Chalmers Chair in Canadian Music
Director, Institute for Music in Canada

March 1964: The official opening of the Edward Johnson Building

Ernest MacMillan served as the Dean of the Faculty of Music from 1926 to 1952. During this time, enrollment fluctuated between about 50 and 60 students, though that number declined during World War II. During much of this period there were only three faculty members: Sir Ernest MacMillan as Dean (he was knighted in 1935 for his services to music in Canada), with professors Leo Smith (a cellist, composer, and historian) and the long-serving Healey Willan (an organist and composer). Meanwhile, the University of Toronto had also assumed responsibility for the Toronto Conservatory of Music in 1919. The TCM was renamed the Royal Conservatory of Music in 1947, and remained under the aegis of the University of Toronto until 1991.

Regular classes (as opposed to a limited set of lectures) were gradually introduced in the 1930s. With the appointments of Arnold Walter in 1945, Robert Rosevear in 1946, and Richard Johnston in 1947, the curriculum was Americanized in rapid measure. The year 1946 saw the creation of the Opera School, and the introduction of a degree in School Music (renamed Music Education in 1953) which proved to be vital for the postwar expansion of music education across Canada. Postwar growth saw a significant increase in holdings of the Music Library under Jean Lavender (from 1947) and Kathleen McMorrow (from 1967), the launch of graduate programs in composition, musicology, and music education in 1954, and the opening of the University of Toronto Electronic Music Studio (UTEMS), the second such facility in North America, in 1959. A corresponding growth in student numbers created an urgent need for a new building. Up to this point, the Faculty of Music had been located in two old houses beside the Royal Conservatory of Music at the southwest corner of University Avenue and College Street. The sale of that property to the Ontario Government for the new headquarters of Ontario Hydro raised $3 million, and the Canada Council provided a grant of close to $1 million. These funds enabled the construction of a new building for the Faculty of Music at 80 Queen’s Park, behind Falconer Hall; at the same time McMaster Hall on Bloor Street was renovated for the Royal Conservatory of Music.

The new Edward Johnson Building at the time of the official opening in 1964; photo by Gilbert A. Milne (1914-1991), Toronto, source: Note the lack of an access ramp, which was not added until the 1980s.

The famed Canadian tenor Edward Johnson, a member of the university’s board of governors, had helped to set the wheels in motion for a new music building before his death in 1959. The Music Library was supposed to be named in his honour, but in the event the entire building was named after him, perhaps due to the influence of his daughter Fiorenza, who was married to George Drew, a former premier of the province of Ontario. The 815-seat opera hall in the new building was named MacMillan Theatre to recognize Sir Ernest’s many years of dedicated service to the university. In 1974 the building’s 490-seat concert hall was named Walter Hall in honour of Arnold Walter (1902-1973), who was the director of the Faculty of Music from 1952 to 1968.

The Edward Johnson Building has a number of structural and architectural problems: poor sightlines in the balcony of MacMillan Theatre make those 172 seats all but unusable; the third floor is on a smaller footprint than the rest of the building; there is no cafeteria; and Taddle Creek, an underground stream which runs beneath Philosopher’s Walk on the west side of the building, creates damp conditions (mushrooms have been known to grow in some basement offices). Notwithstanding these problems, the new Edward Johnson Building was the finest university facility for music education in Canada. It opened for classes in the fall of 1962, but the final stages of construction continued on until early in 1964; as a result, the official opening of the building was delayed until March 1964.

Members of the cast of the 1964 production of Britten’s Albert Herring, performed March 4 and 6 as part of the opening ceremonies of the Edward Johnson Building.

The opening ceremonies of the Edward Johnson Building began on 2 March 1964 and continued with a week-long festival of music. The Overture and first two parts of MacMillan’s England: An Ode, which as noted above was completed in the same year that the Faculty was created, was performed on day one, conducted by the composer. Other concerts that week ranged from early music performances under the direction of Greta Kraus, to Benjamin Britten’s opera Albert Herring. Included were works by Faculty of Music composers (John Beckwith, Richard Johnston, Oskar Morawetz, Godfrey Ridout, Arnold Walter, Healey Willan, and Gerhard Wuensch), some of them in premiere performances.

The fine new music facilities continued to attract record numbers of students. The student body grew to 500 by 1972, and alumni soon spread to every part of Canada and many countries abroad. The influence that they have exercised on the musical life of Canada and the world has been enormous.

Professor Robin Elliott
Jean A. Chalmers Chair in Canadian Music
Director, Institute for Music in Canada

June 1918: The Faculty of Music holds its first meeting at the end of World War I

Before 1918, the University of Toronto awarded degrees in music to external candidates who completed a set of exams. The first was given out in 1846, and 72 degrees had been awarded by 1918. Candidates prepared for these exams by studying questions from earlier exam papers, which were made available in published form. As early as 1904, these published music exam papers bore the designation “University of Toronto Faculty of Music”. So what happened in 1918 that was in any way different from what had gone on beforehand?

The short answer is that on 7 March 1918 the Senate of the University passed a motion to establish a Faculty of Music “which would inaugurate teaching of a university grade and be responsible for the conduct of all examinations in music”. Instead of just setting and grading exams, the University of Toronto would now be in the business of actually teaching music. The inaugural meeting of the Faculty of Music duly took place on 25 June 1918, which marks the beginning of administrative operations for this new academic unit in the university. The minutes of that first meeting have been preserved in the University Archives, and begin as follows:

Scan of original Faculty Council meeting minutes, 25 June 1918.

Faculty of Music. The first meeting of the Faculty of Music of the university was held in the Croft Chapter House, June 25th, 1918 at 11 am. Present: Sir Robert Falconer, President; Dean Vogt; Mr. Fricker; Dr. Ham; Mr. Mouré; Mr. Willan.

Falconer, who served from 1907 to 1932 as the fourth president of the university, had been knighted in 1917 for his services on behalf of wartime recruitment. His name is preserved in Falconer Hall, the Faculty of Law building which sits in front of the Faculty of Music’s Edward Johnson Building. He was a strong proponent for the role of the arts in university education, and his role in the founding of the Faculty of Music reflects that stance.

Dean Augustus Vogt

Dean Augustus Vogt

Dean Vogt (Augustus Stephen Vogt, 1861-1926; pictured here), despite his German heritage and advanced musical training at the Leipzig Conservatory, was Canadian-born, which was fortunate, as the university forced out all of its German-born faculty members during the First World War. A noted organist and choir director (he founded the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir in 1894), in 1913 he had been appointed as the principal of the Toronto Conservatory of Music, and in 1918 he added on his duties as the first Dean of the University of Toronto Faculty of Music, serving in both capacities until his death in 1926. The others present at that first meeting in 1918 – Herbert Fricker, Albert Ham, Ferdinand Mouré and Healey Willan – were English-born organist-composers. To upgrade their credentials, three of them were given honorary doctorates by the university, Willan in 1920, Mouré in 1922, and Fricker in 1923 (Ham and Vogt already had doctoral degrees).

Public lectures on music were given for the first time by University of Toronto music professors early in 1919; they were held in University College, Room 37, on Mondays and Fridays at 4:30 pm. A total of 18 lectures in all were given that first year. The lectures covered topics in music theory and music history – the information one needed to master in order to pass the university’s music exams. The education on offer was conservative, but it was not entirely old fashioned: a music history exam of 1919 included a question about Debussy, who had died the year before, and a question from the 1925 second year music history exam was “Name some of the leading American composers and their works.”

Elsewhere in June 1918…

Portrait of Sir Ernest MacMillan by Kenneth Forbes.

When the Faculty of Music was founded, Ernest MacMillan, who in 1926 would succeed Vogt as the second Dean of the Faculty, was in a prison camp in Germany. He attended the Bayreuth Festival in the summer of 1914, and was still in Germany when war was declared. He was rounded up as an enemy alien, and spent the entire war in Ruhleben, a civilian detention camp in a converted racetrack on the outskirts of Berlin. Fortunately the camp had a vigorous musical life. MacMillan participated actively in the varied musical events there, and was even able to complete an Oxford D.Mus. degree in absentia by writing his thesis composition, England: An Ode, during his abundant spare time. He received word of his success from Oxford on 13 June 1918, just twelve days before the first meeting of the Faculty of Music. He is pictured here in his Oxford doctoral robes in a portrait by Kenneth Forbes, which hangs outside MacMillan Theatre in the Edward Johnson Building.

Written by:
Professor Robin Elliott
Jean A. Chalmers Chair in Canadian Music
Director, Institute for Music in Canada